Many functions have jumps or discontinuities
at which points no mathematical derivatives exist.
These are typically written as conditionals in the source code
or by using the math functions
XAD generally defines the derivatives of standard math functions
as the average of the left and right derivatives at the discontinuity points.
For example, the derivative of
abs(x) at point
x = 0 is set to
as the left derivative is
-1 and the right derivative is
As this definition is not mathematically accurate, and as this creates problems with higher order derivatives, XAD provides a set of smoothed math functions which are differentiable at all points and can be used as a replacement for the original function. They are implemented to provide accurate derivatives outside a small area around the discontinuity, and approximate the original function using a spline within this area.
As an example, the
smooth_abs() function is illustrated in the
figure below (with
c = 0.001):
Note that discontinuities may be hidden in conditional constructs in the original code. In order to benefit from the smoothed math functions, the conditionals need to be replaced by functions. For example:
// original code double y = 0; if (value > strike) y = value - strike; // equivalent smoothed code double y = smooth_max(0, value - strike);
A reference of all provided smoothed math functions is given in Smoothed Mathematical Functions.